Probably the most common symptom in the training context, which can easily confuse beginners in particular, is the excessive use of technical terms on the part of the athletes in the gym, who are motivated to the extreme. So that you know what you are talking about and you do not have to cancel the sails right at the beginning of the new year, we will clarify you with 22 technical terms in the following article, so that you always have a clear view.
1 - Anaerobic vs. aerobic
These two terms are understood in sports science two variants of the energy supply. The anaerobic energy supply takes place excluding the use of oxygen and allows short intense loads, as is the case for example in the context of a 100-meter sprint. The aerobic energy supply, however, takes place with the addition of oxygen, which is necessary, inter alia, for the combustion of fats for the purpose of energy. The latter form of energy delivery allows for moderate endurance exercise that can be sustained over long periods of time.
2 - BCAA
The term BCAA describes branched-chain amino acids, which include leucine, isoleucine and valine. These amino acids are particularly important for athletes, as they are primarily used in the course of training load for energy, so recommends the external intake in the form of a dietary supplement. To optimize the BCAA level and effectively counteract catabolic processes, many sports scientists recommend a daily dose of 5-10 grams, although it should be noted that this dose can be covered by solid food.
3 - Concentric
Concentric refers to the movement phase in the course of an exercise in which a weight is moved against gravity. Muscle fibers are shortened in the muscle in this connection until the apex of the movement is reached. The concentric phase is followed by the eccentric phase, which describes the lowering of a weight.
4 - Drop Sets
Drop sets, also known as reduction phrases in German-speaking countries, define an intensity technique that allows you to tease out the last bit of power from your muscles. In practice, at the end of a set you reduce the training weight so that you can do more repetitions. This process can be repeated as often as you like.
5 - muscle failure
Muscle failure describes the point at which a trained muscle is no longer able to adequately meet the challenge posed to it, that is, when an exercise can no longer be performed with the correct technique. While occasional enforcement of muscle failure is an effective way to increase the growth stimulus, care should be taken that this does not happen too often, otherwise the risk of overtraining increases.
6 - Glycemic index
The glycemic index is a measurement with a range of 0-100, which describes how quickly the carbohydrates contained in a food enter the bloodstream and thus influence the insulin level. Short-chain carbohydrates, such as those found in white flour products and fruit, are high (> 70), whereas long-chain carbohydrate sources such as pasta, rice, and dairy products are low (<55).
7 - hypertrophy
Hypertrophy is nothing more than the growth of muscle fibers in the course of protein synthesis as a result of a very suprathreshold training stimulus.
8 - intensity
In general, the intensity of the training is often equated with the total weight or the duration, but this is not quite correct from a sports science point of view. In addition, the intensity describes the weighted percentage of the 1RM (maximum possible weight that you can move in the course of a repetition) that is used during each repetition of a set or work-out.
9 - Isolation Exercise vs. basic exercise
You will not get around being confronted with terms like isolation practice or basic practice. What initially seems confusing has a simple background: Insulation exercises isolate a particular muscle, whereas basic exercises involve multiple muscle groups and joints in the movement process. A good training program should consist of both exercise variants.
10 - kettlebells Kettlebells or ball dumbbells are special training weights that were developed more than a hundred years ago in Russia. Due to the shift of the center of gravity under the grasping hand, kettlebells are particularly suitable for dynamic and ballistic motion sequences. In addition, the instability of the dumbbell during use ensures the increase in grip.
11 - Load
Load is nothing more than a synonym for the training weight used.
12 - metabolism
Metabolism describes the totality of biochemical processes within the human body that are aimed at producing energy in the context of nutrient uptake. The generated energy uses your organism to maintain its vital functions as well as to develop muscular workforce.
13 - nutrients
All the foods you eat contain both the macro and micronutrients your body needs to maintain metabolic activity. Macronutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats provide your body with energy and building material at the same time, whereas micronutrients such as vitamins, minerals, trace elements and antioxidants are needed, among other things for hormone production and to optimize biochemical balances.
14 - Overtraining
Overtraining describes the point at which you overburden your body with the current training period, so that it can not keep up with the regeneration. In practice, the overtraining comes through stagnant performance and fatigue and a weakened immune system come to light. Accordingly, you should make sure that you give your body enough rest in the form of sleep and conscious exercise breaks.
15 - Periodization
Periodization describes the systematic planning of training over a defined period of time. In this context, it is determined, for example, in which temporal scope and context Hypertherpie-, strength endurance and maximum strength training are performed. The periodization serves, among other things, to prevent overtraining.
16 - quadriceps
The muscle group consisting of four individual muscles, which is responsible for the extension of the knee joint, is also referred to in the art as quadriceps.
17 - rest
Although hard training is obviously essential for muscle growth, recovery should be as important as your fitness concept, as the muscles grow and recover only during periods of rest and not during periods of stress. To ensure optimal recovery, a balanced diet is essential in addition to exercise breaks and adequate sleep.
18 - Supplements
Supplements are dietary supplements such as protein powder, creatine, caffeine, and BCAAs that help you get the most out of your body. However, it should be noted in this context that supplements are not a substitute for a healthy diet.
19 - Tempo
The tempo describes the speed at which each movement phase of an exercise is performed. The actual pace of a phase, however, depends on the training concept and the underlying training goal. During hypertrophy training, both the concentric and eccentric phases of exercise are moderately to slow-paced to maximize the duration of muscle tension. In contrast, in the case of maximum strength training, in particular the concentric phase takes place explosively.
20 - Unilateral
Unilateral means that as part of a repetition, only one side of your body is trained, as is the case with isolated bicep curls. This variant has the advantage that you can concentrate on the single muscle and thus consciously work on weak points, for example.
21 - Vitamins
Vitamins are micronutrients that the organism can not synthesize for the most part, which is why the dietary intake of existential importance. In general, a distinction is made between water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, but the vitamin D occupies a special position, as this is mainly produced in the skin using sunlight.
22 - whey protein
Whey Protein is by far the most popular dietary supplement in bodybuilding circles. It is a fast-digesting protein that is rich in BCAAs and, compared to casein, gets into the blood much faster and thus into the muscle cells, where it can immediately be used to build new muscle tissue.